Fermentation starts with pyruvates to produces the end products of fermentation. As fermentation requires carbohydrates (for example glucose) to produce end products, these carbohydrates first need to undergo a step by step breakdown process. In this article, we will find the answer to ‘ How many ATPs are produced in fermentation ‘.
Does Fermentation Produce ATP?
The answer is YES.
The fermentation produces TWO ATPs, in the glycolytic pathway.
How many ATPs are produced in fermentation:
Two ATPs are produced in fermentation, mainly in the glycolysis process.
Glucose first converts to pyruvates through glycolysis process and then to lactic acids or alcohol as well as other products of fermentation. In the glycolysis process, 2 pyruvates, 2 net ATP, and 2 NADH are produced.
Glucose + ATP +Pi + NAD+→ 2 pyruvate +2ATP +2NADH
Pyruvic acid +NADH → Lactic acids / Alcohol + NAD+.
Fermentation breakdown pyruvates to produce the end products of fermentation such as lactic acids or alcohol etc. It converts NAD+ to NADH, but produces no ATP.
Glycolysis needs two moles of ATP to breakdown one mole of glucose. However, at the end of glycolysis, four moles of ATP are produced, resulting in the production of net 2 moles ATP from each mole of glucose.
Although glycolysis is an aerobic process, it still requires an oxidizing agent to converts NAD+ to NADH.
But fermentation converts NADH to NAD+ an oxidizing agent that helps the glycolysis generate more ATP.
Therefore 2 ATP are produced in fermentation, mainly in the glycolysis process.
How Many ATPs are Produced in Alcoholic Fermentation:
Two ATPs are produced in Alcohol Fermentation.
In Alcoholic fermentation one mole of glucose is converted to two moles of ethanol, two moles of carbon dioxide, producing two moles of ATP in the process.
Glucose + ADP + Pi —→ Lactate + 2Ethanol + 2CO2 + 2NAD+ + 2ATP
How Many ATPs are Produced in Lactic Acid Fermentation:
Two ATPs are produced in Lactic Acid Fermentation.
- In Homofermentative lactic acid fermentation, two molecules of lactic acids, 2NAD+, and two ATPs are produced from glucose.
Glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi —→ 2 Lactate + 2NAD+ + 2 ATP.
- In Heterofermentative lactic acid fermentation one molecule of lactic acids, ethanol, carbon-di-oxide, 2NAD+, and two ATPs are produced from glucose.
Glucose + ADP + Pi —→ Lactate + Ethanol + CO2 + 2NAD+ + 2ATP.
The main purpose of alcohol and lactic acid fermentation is to generate two ATP, the energy flow for cells.
So how many ATPs are produced in fermentation?
The answer is TWO ATPs.
If you have any questions, feel free to comment here.